Mean dry air mole fractions of CO2 in the lowest 200 m above surface from anthropogenic emissions over Europe. Hourly anthropogenic emissions are based on a combination of EDGAR v42 and a high-resolution Swiss CO2 emission inventory, and include source-category dependent time functions for diurnal, day-of-week and seasonal variability. The pulsation is mainly due to diurnal variations in boundary layer height affecting the dilution of CO2 emitted at the surface.

Simulation: Yu Liu, ETH; Animation: Dominik Brunner, Empa. Download AVI